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May 2017 Volume 52nd . Number 1. ISSN :2305-4557




Camara Tenemakan

Source International Journal of Social Sciences  pp 001-006 Vol 52. No. 1 -- 2017

The general theory of contracts, as presented in the french Civil Code of 1804, is governed by the principle of freedom of contract. As the parties to the contract freely expressed their wishes, the legislator had not envisaged the protection of one party more than that of another. There is a weak part when a contractual relationship is unbalanced. To do this, one party must be in a position of strength in relation to the other. A situation of strength, morally requires protection of the weak part of the law, which must ensure, as far as possible, equality between the contracting parties.

The weaker party in business contracts enjoys dual-trigger protection. A first protection endeavor to fit him out so that he can negotiate fairly with his partner and a second protection seeking to sanction the other party after the conclusion.



protection ; weaker party ; business contracts




The Research of Chinese Opera Mask- Jing role as example


Tai-Jui Wang, Rungtai Lin, Chih-Long Lin

Source International Journal of Social Sciences  pp 007-015 Vol 52. No. 1 -- 2017

Making up a facial symbolism is a very specific skill and makeup art in the Chinese opera. The performers use colorful paintings to paint variety of symbolism and line arts on their faces. These emphasize the characteristics, positions, ages, and the provenances of the characters. The method of this research applies the content analysis method to comprise the painted-face of Jing role in the Chinese opera. The results of this research found some indications by painted-face attribute values comparison, sources diversity reference, and nodes clustered by attribute value for indicating similarity or unusual from the original texts. In conclude the object of analysis in this research, the facial patterns which appear on the face of a Jing character, can be defined as “descriptive”, “hereditary”, “imitative”, and “name-based” in generally. To the uninitiated audience, the face patterns and colors, which appear upon the stage, may rapidly become an indistinguishable blur. Fortunately in performer’s position, one has to unravel the secrets of Chinese face painting is to learn to recognize the symbols and signs stamped upon each Chinese opera character's face.

Keyword Chinese opera, Painted-face, Facial Symbolism, Content Analysis